The Capital of Puglia
Bari is the capital city of the province of Bari and of the Apulia (or, in Italian, Puglia) region, on the Adriatic sea, in Italy. It is the second economic centre of mainland Southern Italy and is well known as a port and university city, as well as the city of Saint Nicholas.
Barion (Latin Barium), does not seem to have been a place of great importance in Greater Greece, but once it passed under Roman rule in the third century BC, it developed strategic significance as the point of junction between the coast road and the Via Traiana, a branch road to Tarentum led from Barium. Its harbour, mentioned as early as 181 BC, was probably the principal one of the district in ancient times, as it is at present, and was the centre of a fishery. After the devastations of the Gothic Wars, under Lombard rule a set of written regulations was established, the Consuetudines Barenses, which influenced similar written constitutions in other southern cities.
For a brief period of 20 years, Bari was captured by Islamic invaders and became the Emirate of Bari in 847. The city was soon reconquered by the Byzantines in 870. In 885, it became the residence of the local Byzantine catapan, or governor. The failed revolt (1009-1011) of the Lombard nobles Melus of Bari and his brother-in-law Dattus, against the Byzantine governorate, though it was firmly repressed at the Battle of Cannae (1018), offered their Norman adventurer allies a first foothold in the region. In 1025, under the Archbishop Byzantius, Bari became attached to the see of Rome and was granted "provincial" status.
In 1071, Bari was captured by Robert Guiscard. The Basilica di San Nicola was founded in 1087 to receive the relics of this saint, which were surreptitiously brought from Myra in Lycia, in Byzantine territory. The saint began his development from Saint Nicolas of Myra into Saint Nicolas of Bari and began to attract pilgrims, whose encouragement and care became central to the economy of Bari.
In 1095 Peter the Hermit preached the first crusade there. In October 1098, Urban II, who had consecrated the Basilica in 1089, convened the Council of Bari, one of a series of synods convoked with the intention of reconciling the Greeks and Latins. The Greeks were not brought over to the Latin way of thinking, and the Great Schism was inevitable. A civil war broke out in Bari in 1117 with the murder of the archbishop. Grimoald Alferanites, a native Lombard, was elected lord in opposition to the Normans.
By 1123, he had increased ties with Byzantium and Venice and taken the title gratia Dei et beati Nikolai barensis princeps. Grimoald increased the cult of St Nicholas in his city. He later did homage to Roger II of Sicily, but rebelled and was defeated in 1132. Bari was occupied by Manuel I Komnenos between 1155-1158. In 1246, Bari was sacked and razed to the ground; Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Sicily, repaired the fortress of Bari but it was subsequently destroyed several times. Bari recovered each time.
Isabella di Aragona, princess of Naples and widow of the Duke of Milan Gian Galeazzo Sforza, enlarged the castle, which she made her residence, 1499-1524. After the death of Bona Sforza, Queen of Poland, Bari came to be included in the Kingdom of Naples and its history contracted to a local one, as malaria became endemic in the region. Bari was wakened from its provincial somnolence by Napoleon's brother-in-law Joachim Murat.
As Napoleonic King of Naples Murat ordered the building in 1808 of a new section of the city, laid out on a rational grid plan, which bears his name today as the Murattiano. Under this stimulus, Bari developed into the most important port city of the region. The legacy of Mussolini can be seen in the imposing architecture along the seafront. Through a tragic coincidence intended by neither of the opposing sides in World War II, Bari gained the unwelcome distinction of being the only European city to experience chemical warfare in the course of that war. On the night of December 2, 1943, German Junkers Ju 88 bombers attacked the port of Bari, which was a key supply center for Allied forces fighting their way up the Italian peninsula.
Several Allied ships were sunk in the overcrowded harbor, including the U.S. Liberty ship John Harvey, which was carrying mustard gas, mustard gas was also reported to have been stacked on the quayside awaiting transport. The chemical agent was intended for use if German forces initiated chemical warfare. The presence of the gas was highly classified, and authorities ashore had no knowledge of it. This increased the number of fatalities, since physicians — who had no idea that they were dealing with the effects of mustard gas — prescribed treatment proper for those suffering from exposure and immersion, which proved fatal in many cases.
Because rescuers were unaware they were dealing with gas casualties many additional casulalties were caused among the rescuers by contact with the contaminated skin and clothing of those more directly exposed to the gas. On the orders of allied leaders: Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill and Dwight D. Eisenhower, records were destroyed and the whole affair was kept secret for many years after the war. The U.S. records of the attack were declassified in 1959 but the episode remained obscure until 1967.
Indeed, even today, many "Baresi" are still unaware of what happened and why. Up to the present, there is a considerable dispute as to the number of fatalities.
Basilica di San Nicola
Cathedral of St. Sabinus
The Norman-Hohenstaufen Castle.
The Russian Church
Map of Puglia
Stay in the Land of Bari
- Masseria Cesarina
- Masseria Due Torri
- La Fattoria del Monsignore
- Casale San Giorgio
- B&B Dei Serafini
- Agriturismo Montepaolo
- Mizar Blu
- B&B Maria Chiara
- Trullo del Melograno
- Borgo San Martino
- Donna Isabella
- Foresteria Pellegrino
- B&B Delle Camelie
- La Maison
- Tenuta Colavecchio
- B&B Le Coccinelle
- Palazzo D'Erchia Hotel
- Corte Altavilla
- Pietrablu Resort
Events in the Land of Bari
- Pugilato letterario - Festival dell'Innovazione
- Show time - Festival dell'Innovazione
- Festival dell'Innovazione - Festival dell'Innovazione
- Cheek to cheek - Festival dell'Innovazione
- Piazza virtuale - Festival dell'Innovazione
- Creativity Lab - Festival dell'Innovazione
- Apulia Innovation Contest - Festival dell'Innovazione
- Come ottenere quello che veramente, veramente, veramente vuoi - Segnali di Fumo
- Nel Blu della Puglia
- Maker zone - Festival dell'Innovazione